(Parts 1 & 2)
By Andrew Davie (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn, a.k.a. Random Terrain)
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Page Table of Contents
By now you should be familiar with how the '2600 playfield works. In summary, there are three playfield registers (PF0, PF1, PF2) and these hold 20 bits of playfield data. The '2600 displays this data twice on every scanline, and you can have the second half mirrored, if you wish. Playfield is a single-color, but each half of the screen may be set to use the colors of the players (more about those, later!). In short, though, we have a fairly versatile system just great for PONG-style games.
Pretty soon, though, programmers started doing much more sophisticated things with the TIA—and especially with the playfield registers—than just displaying symmetrical (or mirrored) playfields.
Since writes to TIA immediately change the internal 'state' of the TIA, and since the TIA and 6502 work in tandem during the display of a TIA frame, there's no reason why the 6502 can't modify things on-the-fly in the middle of scanlines. For example, any write to playfield registers will IMMEDIATELY reflect in changes to the data that the TIA is sending for a particular scanline. I qualify this slightly by my non-knowledge if these immediate changes are on a per-pixel basis, or on a per-byte basis. Something for us all to play with!
In any case, as will probably have become obvious to you by now, it is possible to display a different 'shape' on the left and right of any scanline. As stated, if we left the TIA alone then it would display the same (or a mirrored version) data on the left and right halves of the screen—coming from its 20 pixel playfield data. But if we modify any of the playfield registers on-the-fly (that is, mid-scanline) then we will see the results of that modification straight away when the TIA draws the rest of the scanline.
Let's revisit briefly our understanding of the TIA and frame timing. Please refer to the earlier sessions where the timing of the TIA and 6502 were covered. In summary, there are exactly 228 color-clocks of TIA 'time' on any scanline—160 of those clocks are actual visible pixels on the screen and 68 of them are the time it takes for the horizontal retrace to occur.
Our 'zero point' of any scanline is the beginning of horizontal retrace. This is the point at which the TIA re-enables the 6502 if it has been halted by a WSYNC write. At the beginning of any scanline, then, we know that we have exactly 68 color clocks (68/3 = 22.667 cycles) before the TIA starts 'drawing' the line itself.
You should already be familiar with the horizontal resolution of '2600 playfield—exactly 40 pixels per scanline. I use the term 'pixels' interchangeably here—to mean a minimum unit of graphic resolution. For the playfield, there are 40 pixels a line. But the TIA has 160 color-clocks per line, and in fact sprite resolution is also 160 pixels per line. Another way of looking at this is that each playfield pixel is 4 color-clocks wide, and each sprite pixel is 1 color clock wide (as a minimum, anyway—this can be adjusted to give double-wide and quadruple-wide sprites. We'll get to sprites soon, I promise!)
There are 228 (160 visible + 68 not visible) color clocks on each scanline. The CPU is active ALL the time, *unless* you write to WSYNC at which point the CPU is *immediately* halted and doesn't become active again until the start of the next scanline. Since it takes 3 cycles to actually write WSYNC, a kernel which is using this to time scanlines only has 73 CPU cycles per line. Why 73? Because if we look at the color clocks per line, we see 228; but if we look at 3 color clocks for every CPU cycle, we actually have 228/3 = 76 CPU cycles per line. And if we use 3 of those to do a WSYNC, then we only have 73 available for other stuff. Voila!
And note, these 76 cycles for the whole line actually encompass the WHOLE line . . . 228 color clocks worth. Some of those will be during the 160 visible onscreen pixels (color clocks). Some will be during the 68 'horizontal blank' period—the invisible color clocks. And the CPU can be halted by a WSYNC at *any* time during the line—and it will be turned on at the start of the next line—no matter how long away that is.
It's quite important to understand the timing of things. Let's delve a bit more deeply into the synchronization between the 6502 and the TIA, and have a close look at when/where each pixel of the playfield is actually being drawn.
As stated above, the first 68 cycles of each scanline are the horizontal retrace period. So the very first pixel of playfield (which is 4 color-clocks wide, remember!) starts drawing on TIA cycle 68 (of 228 in the line). So if we want that pixel to be the right 'shape' (ie: on or off, as the case may be) then we really have to make sure we have the right data in the right bit of PF0 before cycle 68.
Likewise, we should really make sure that the second pixel has its correct data set before cycle 72 (68 + 4 color clocks). In fact, you should now understand that the 4 playfield pixels at the left of the scanline occupy TIA color clocks (68-71) (72-75) (76-79) and (80-83). The very first pixel of PF1, then, starts displaying at clock 84. So we need to make sure that data for PF1 is written before TIA clock 84. And so it goes, we should make sure that PF2 data is written to PF2 before the TIA starts displaying PF2 pixels. And that happens on clock (84 + 8 * 4 = 116)
Finally, we can now see that PF2 will take 32 color clocks (because it's 8 pixels, at 4 clocks each). As it starts on TIA clock 116, it will end on clock 147. The obvious calculation is 147 (end) - 68 (start) = 80 color clocks. Which nicely corresponds to 20 pixels at 4 color clocks each. OK, that's straightforward, but you should now follow exactly the correspondence between TIA color clocks and the start of display of particular pixels on any scanline.
Now, what happens at color clock 148? The TIA starts displaying the second half of the playfield for the scanline in question, of course! Depending on if the playfield is mirrored or not, we will start seeing data from PF2 (mirrored) or from PF0 (non-mirrored).
Now, and here's the really neat bit—and the whole trick behind 'asymmetric' playfields—we know that if we rewrite the TIA playfield data AFTER it has been displayed on the left half of the scanline, but BEFORE it is displayed on the right half of the scanline, then the TIA will display different data on the left and right side of the screen.
In particular, this method tends to use a non-mirrored playfield. We noted that PF0 finished displaying its 4 pixels on color clock 83 (inclusive). So from color clock 84 onwards (up to 148, in fact), we may freely write new data to PF0 and we won't bugger anything currently being displayed. That's 60 color clocks of time available to us.
Time to revisit the timing relationship between the 6502 and the TIA. The TIA has 228 color clocks per scanline, but the 6502 speed is derived from the TIA clock through a divide-by-three. So the 6502 has only 76 cycles (228/3) per scanline. So if there are 60 color clocks of time available to change PF0, that corresponds to 60/3 = 20 cycles of 6502 time. Further conversions between TIA time and 6502 cycles show us that it must start after TIA cycle 84 (= 84/3) = 6502 cycle 28, and it must end before TIA cycle 148 (6502 cycle 148/3 = 49.3333). Aha! How can we have a non-integer cycle? We can't, of course. All this tells us is that it is IMPOSSIBLE to exactly change data on TIA color clock 148. We can change TIA data on any divisible-by-three cycle number, since the 6502 is working in tandem with the TIA but only gets a look-in every 3 cycles.
This inability to exactly time things isn't a problem for us now, as we have already noted that there are 60 TIA color clocks in which we can effect our change for PF0.
PF1 and PF2 operate in exactly the same fashion. PF1 is displayed from clocks 84-115 and on the right-side from clock 164 onwards (remember the right-side starts at clock 148, PF0 takes 16 color-clocks (4 pixels at 4 color-clocks each). So to modify PF1 so it displays different right-side and left-side visuals, we need to modify it between color clock 116 and 164. That gives us a narrower window of time in which we can make our modification—just 48 color clocks. But still, we can do that, right?
Finally, PF2 is displayed from clock 116-147 (let's check, that's 32 color clocks inclusive - 32 = 8 pixels x 4 clocks per pixel. Yep!). And on the right-side of the scanline, PF2 will display from clock 164 + 32 = 196 to clock 227. 227 - 196 = exactly 32 color clocks. Voila! So the window of opportunity for PF2, so to speak, is from color clock 148 to 195 inclusive. That's another 48 clocks.
So to summarize the timing for writing the right-hand-side PF register updates, we can safely modify PF0 from clocks 84 - 147, PF1 from clocks 116 - 163 inclusive, and PF2 from 148 - 195 inclusive. Note the overlap on these times. We could safely modify PF1 on (say) cycle 116, and then modify PF0 on cycle 130, and finally modify PF2 on cycle 190. The point being, it's not the ORDER of the modifications to the playfield registers that count—it's the TIMING that counts. As long as we modify the registers in the period when the TIA isn't drawing them, we won't see glitches on the screen.
Well, now you have all the information you need to generate an asymmetrical playfield. But there's one thing you need to remember—once you write data to the TIA, the TIA retains that 'state', or the data that you last wrote. So if you want an asymmetrical playfield, you not only have to write the new data for the right-half of the scanline, you have to write the right data for the left side of the NEXT scanline!
In fact, we already covered that. As long as PF0 is written before cycle 68 then it will display OK on the left . . . etc. So a typical asymmetrical playfield kernel will be writing 6 playfield writes (two to PF0, two to PF1, two to PF2) on each and every scanline. As you can imagine, you don't get a lot of change out of just 76 cycles of 6502 time per scanline, when as a minimum a load/store is going to cost you 5 cycles of time—and in most cases more like 6 or 7. That can equate to 40 or more cycles of your 76, JUST drawing the playfield data. Ouch!
The following diagram shows the timing relationship between the TIA, the 6502, and playfield pixels. Further, it shows the times at which it is safe to write the playfield registers for both left and right-sides of the screen.
Rather than give you a code sample this session, I'd like you to grab the last playfield code and convert it to display an asymmetrical playfield. Doesn't have to be fancy—just demonstrate a consistent change between left and right halves of the screen, writing PF0, PF1 and PF2 twice each on each scanline. Once you've mastered this concept you can truly say you're on the way to programming a '2600 game!
See you next time!
Other Assembly Language Tutorials
Sessions 17 & 18: Asymmetrical Playfields (Parts 1 & 2)
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
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If you are overweight, have type II diabetes, or are worried about the condition of your heart, check out the videos by William Davis and Ivor Cummins. It seems that most people should avoid wheat, not just those who have a wheat allergy or celiac disease. Check out these books: #ad Undoctored, #ad Wheat Belly, and #ad Eat Rich, Live Long.
Negative ions are good for us. You might want to avoid positive ion generators and ozone generators. Whenever I need a new air cleaner (with negative ion generator), I buy it from surroundair.com. A plain old air cleaner is better than nothing, but one that produces negative ions makes the air in a room fresher and easier for me to breathe. It also helps to brighten my mood.
Never litter. Toss it in the trash or take it home. Do not throw it on the ground. Also remember that good people clean up after themselves at home, out in public, at a campsite and so on. Leave it better than you found it.
Seems like more people than ever finally care about water, land, and air pollution, but the climate change cash grab scam is designed to put more of your money into the bank accounts of greedy politicians. Those power-hungry schemers try to trick us with bad data and lies about overpopulation while pretending to be caring do-gooders. Trying to eliminate pollution is a good thing, but the carbon footprint of the average law-abiding human right now is actually making the planet greener instead of killing it.
Watch these two YouTube videos for more information:
Hydrofracking is bad for you, your family, your friends, and the environment.
Although some people with certain conditions may not be able to take it, hydroxychloroquine is a cheap drug that has been prescribed by doctors since the 1950s and it seems to be helping many people who have COVID-19 when administered early enough. (Hydroxychloroquine is also supposedly safe and tolerable as an anti-cancer therapy.) Seems like most news sources are going out of their way to make it sound like hydroxychloroquine is the most dangerous drug in the world, but they also make it sound like it’s the greatest drug in the world for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis patients. They basically say that using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients would be taking that great and wonderful drug away from the other patients who need it. So which is it? Is hydroxychloroquine deadly or divine?
If you believe that a couple of Trump supporters took the medicine hydroxychloroquine and it’s President Trumps fault that the husband died, you’ve been duped. Watch this video. The wife was a prolific Democratic donor, it seems she hated her husband, she used fish tank cleaner (not the medicine hydroxychloroquine), and now she is the subject of a homicide investigation.
Some people claim that the reason so many news sources want to keep doctors from using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 is that they are desperate to keep everyone afraid to leave their homes since mail-in voting will make voter fraud much easier (the only way they could beat Trump). Others claim that the rabid anti-hydroxychloroquine campaign was to make way for the expensive new drug called remdesivir. Drug companies can’t make much money with old generic drugs, so new drugs must be pushed. Both claims could be true since remdesivir supposedly isn’t as good as hydroxychloroquine.
According to Dr. Shiva Ayyadurai, hydroxychloroquine does four things: (1) stops viral entry, (2) stops viral RNA replication, (3) stops viral particle assembly, and (4) stops cytokine storm. Remdesivir only stops viral RNA replication. Did you get that? Hydroxychloroquine does four things and remdesivir only does one. The doctor also said that nearly 70 percent of the people who took remdesivir had some type of adverse effect. If all of that is true and the more anemic medicine ends up being used by most doctors thanks to the smear campaign against hydroxychloroquine, the average American will beg to vote from home.
In case you didn’t know, Patrick Howley reported that one of the authors of the ‘study’ saying that hydroxychloroquine doesn’t work at VA hospitals got a research grant from Gilead (the company that makes remdesivir). Does that seem a little fishy to you?
Bryan Fischer said in an article that Dr. Fauci has known since 2005 that chloroquine is an effective inhibitor of coronaviruses. You might also want to check out the following three links:
“The Disruptive Physician” had this to say at Twitter: “Meanwhile, regular doctors like me are using HCQ + Azithromycin and Zinc to good effect. One nursing home in NE Ohio had 30 cases - started everyone on HCQ, no deaths. Quick recovery. Why would the MSM hide this? Why would twitter block people who question the WHO?” You might also want to check out Dr. Stephen Smith, Dr. Ramin Oskoui and Dr. Yvette Lozano.
In case you’re interested, here are a few COVID-19 patients who appear to claim that hydroxychloroquine saved their lives: elderly couple Louis Amen and Dolores Amen, Daniel Dae Kim, Rio Giardinieri, John McConnell, Margaret Novins, Jim Santilli, Billy Saracino, and Karen Whitsett (Democratic member of the Michigan House of Representatives).
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