By Andrew Davie (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn, a.k.a. Random Terrain)
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Page Table of Contents
Let's have a look at the memory architecture of the '2600, and how the 6502 communicates with the TIA and other parts of the '2600 hardware.
The 6502 communicates with the TIA by writing, and sometimes reading values to/from TIA 'registers'. These registers are 'mapped' to certain fixed addresses in the 6502's addressing range.
In its simplest form, the 6502 is able to address 65536 (2^16) bytes of memory, each with a unique address. Each 16-bit address ultimately directly controls the 'wires' on a 16-bit buspathway to memory, selecting the appropriate byte of memory to read/write. However, the '2600 CPU, the 6507, is only able to directly access 2^13 bytes (8192 bytes) of memory. That is, only 13 of the 16 address lines are actually connected to physical memory.
This is our first introduction to 'memory mapping' and mirroring. Given that the 6507 can only access addresses using the low 13 bits of an address, what happens if bit 14, 15, or 16 of an address are set? Where does the 6507 go to look for its data? In fact, bits 14,15, and 16 are totally ignored—only the low 13 bits are used to identify the address of the byte to read/write. Consider the valid addresses which can be formed with just 13 bits of data. . .
from %0000000000000 to %1111111111111
= from $0000 to $1FFF
Note: $0000 is the same as 0 is the same as %000 is the same as %0000000000. 0 is 0. In the same vein, any number with leading zeros is the same as that number without zeros. I often see people writing $02 when they could just write $2, or better yet . . . 2. Your assembler doesn't care how numbers are written. It's the value of numbers that matter. So use the most readable form of numbers, where it makes sense. Remember, 0 is 0000 is %0 is $000
So we've just written down the minimum and maximum addresses that can be formed with 13 bits. This gives us our memory 'footprint'—the absolute extremes of memory which can be accessed by the 6507 through a 13-bit address.
This next idea is important, so make sure you understand! All communication between the CPU and hardware (be it ROM, RAM, I/O, the TIA, or other) is through reads and/or writes to memory locations. Read that again.
The consequences of this are that some of that memory range (between $0 and $1FFF) must contain our RAM, some must contain our ROM (program), and some must presumably allow us to communicate with the TIA and whatever other communication/control systems the machine has. And that's exactly how it works.
We have just 128 bytes of RAM on the '2600. That RAM 'lives' at addresses $80 - $FF. It's always there, so any write to location $80 (128 decimal) will actually be to the first byte of RAM. Likewise, any read from those locations is actually reading from RAM.
So we've just learned that the 6507 addresses memory using 13 bits to uniquely identify the memory location, and that some areas of that memory 'range' are devoted to different uses. The area from $80 to $FF is our 128 bytes of RAM!
Don't worry too much about understanding this yet, but TIA registers are mapped in the memory addresses 0 to $7F, RIOT (a bit of '2600 hardware we'll look at later) from $280 - $2FF (roughly), and our program is mapped into address range $1000 to $1FFF (a 4K size).
Note: 1K = 1024 bytes = $400 bytes = %10000000000 bytes.
In essence, then, to change the state of the TIA we just have to write values to TIA 'registers' which look to the 6507 just like any other memory location and which 'live' in addresses 0 to $7F. To the 6502 (and I'll revert to that name now we've emphasized that the 6507 only has 13 address lines as opposed to the 6502's 16 and all other things are equal) a read or write of a TIA register is just the same as a read or write to any other area of memory. The difference is, the TIA is 'watching' those locations, and when you write to that memory, you're really changing the TIA 'registers'—and potentially changing what it draws on a scanline.
So now we know how to communicate with the TIA, and where it 'lives' in our memory footprint. And we know how to communicate with RAM, and where it 'lives'. Even our program in ROM is really just another area in our memory 'map'—the program that runs from a cartridge is accessed by the 6502 just by reading memory locations. In effect, the cartridge 'plugs-in' to the 6502 memory map. Let's have a quick look at what we know so far about memory. . .
$0000 - $007F
$0080 - $00FF
$0200 - $02FF
$1000 - $1FFF
We'll keep it simple for now—though you may be wondering what 'lives' in the gaps in that map, between the bits we know about. The short answer is 'not much'—so let's not worry about those areas for now. Just remember that when we're accessing TIA registers, we're really accessing memory from 0 to $7F, and when we access RAM, we're accessing memory from $80 to $FF, etc.
Now that we understand HOW the 6502 communicates with the TIA, one of our next steps will be to start to examine the registers of the TIA and what happens when you modify them. It won't be long now before we start to understand how it all works. Stay tuned.
I might give up writing "next time we'll talk about. . ." because I seem to end up covering something completely different.
Other Assembly Language Tutorials
Session 5: Memory Architecture
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
Some people appear to have a mental illness because they have a vitamin B deficiency. For example, the wife of a guy I used to chat with online had severe mood swings which seemed to be caused by food allergies or intolerances. She would became irrational, obnoxious, throw tantrums, and generally act like she had a mental illness. The horrid behavior stopped after she started taking a vitamin B complex. I’ve been taking #ad Jarrow B-Right for many years. It makes me much easier to live with.
Unfermented soy is bad! “When she stopped eating soy, the mental problems went away.” Fermented soy doesn’t bother me, but the various versions of unfermented soy (soy flour, soybean oil, and so on) that are used in all kinds of products these days causes a negative mental health reaction in me that a vitamin B complex can’t tame. The sinister encroachment of soy has made the careful reading of ingredients a necessity.
If you are overweight, have type II diabetes, or are worried about the condition of your heart, check out the videos by William Davis and Ivor Cummins. It seems that most people should avoid wheat, not just those who have a wheat allergy or celiac disease. Check out these books: #ad Undoctored, #ad Wheat Belly, and #ad Eat Rich, Live Long.
Negative ions are good for us. You might want to avoid positive ion generators and ozone generators. Whenever I need a new air cleaner (with negative ion generator), I buy it from surroundair.com. A plain old air cleaner is better than nothing, but one that produces negative ions makes the air in a room fresher and easier for me to breathe. It also helps to brighten my mood.
Never litter. Toss it in the trash or take it home. Do not throw it on the ground. Also remember that good people clean up after themselves at home, out in public, at a campsite and so on. Leave it better than you found it.
Seems like more people than ever finally care about water, land, and air pollution, but the climate change cash grab scam is designed to put more of your money into the bank accounts of greedy politicians. Those power-hungry schemers try to trick us with bad data and lies about overpopulation while pretending to be caring do-gooders. Trying to eliminate pollution is a good thing, but the carbon footprint of the average law-abiding human right now is actually making the planet greener instead of killing it.
Watch these two YouTube videos for more information:
Hydrofracking is bad for you, your family, your friends, and the environment.
Although some people with certain conditions may not be able to take it, hydroxychloroquine is a cheap drug that has been prescribed by doctors since the 1950s and it seems to be helping many people who have COVID-19 when administered early enough. (Hydroxychloroquine is also supposedly safe and tolerable as an anti-cancer therapy.) Seems like most news sources are going out of their way to make it sound like hydroxychloroquine is the most dangerous drug in the world, but they also make it sound like it’s the greatest drug in the world for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis patients. They basically say that using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients would be taking that great and wonderful drug away from the other patients who need it. So which is it? Is hydroxychloroquine deadly or divine?
If you believe that a couple of Trump supporters took the medicine hydroxychloroquine and it’s President Trumps fault that the husband died, you’ve been duped. Watch this video. The wife was a prolific Democratic donor, it seems she hated her husband, she used fish tank cleaner (not the medicine hydroxychloroquine), and now she is the subject of a homicide investigation.
Some people claim that the reason so many news sources want to keep doctors from using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 is that they are desperate to keep everyone afraid to leave their homes since mail-in voting will make voter fraud much easier (the only way they could beat Trump). Others claim that the rabid anti-hydroxychloroquine campaign was to make way for the expensive new drug called remdesivir. Drug companies can’t make much money with old generic drugs, so new drugs must be pushed. Both claims could be true since remdesivir supposedly isn’t as good as hydroxychloroquine.
According to Dr. Shiva Ayyadurai, hydroxychloroquine does four things: (1) stops viral entry, (2) stops viral RNA replication, (3) stops viral particle assembly, and (4) stops cytokine storm. Remdesivir only stops viral RNA replication. Did you get that? Hydroxychloroquine does four things and remdesivir only does one. The doctor also said that nearly 70 percent of the people who took remdesivir had some type of adverse effect. If all of that is true and the more anemic medicine ends up being used by most doctors thanks to the smear campaign against hydroxychloroquine, the average American will beg to vote from home.
In case you didn’t know, Patrick Howley reported that one of the authors of the ‘study’ saying that hydroxychloroquine doesn’t work at VA hospitals got a research grant from Gilead (the company that makes remdesivir). Does that seem a little fishy to you?
Bryan Fischer said in an article that Dr. Fauci has known since 2005 that chloroquine is an effective inhibitor of coronaviruses. You might also want to check out the following three links:
“The Disruptive Physician” had this to say at Twitter: “Meanwhile, regular doctors like me are using HCQ + Azithromycin and Zinc to good effect. One nursing home in NE Ohio had 30 cases - started everyone on HCQ, no deaths. Quick recovery. Why would the MSM hide this? Why would twitter block people who question the WHO?” You might also want to check out Dr. Stephen Smith, Dr. Ramin Oskoui and Dr. Yvette Lozano.
In case you’re interested, here are a few COVID-19 patients who appear to claim that hydroxychloroquine saved their lives: elderly couple Louis Amen and Dolores Amen, Daniel Dae Kim, Rio Giardinieri, John McConnell, Margaret Novins, Jim Santilli, Billy Saracino, and Karen Whitsett (Democratic member of the Michigan House of Representatives).
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