By Darrell Spice, Jr. (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn, a.k.a. Random Terrain)
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Original Blog Entry
First things first—head over to MiniDig - Best of Stella and download the Stella Programmer's Guide from the docs page. I've also attached it to my blog entry, but you should still check out what's available over at MiniDig.
The heart of the Atari is the Television Interface Adaptor (TIA). It's the video chip, sound generator, and also handles some of the controller input. As a video chip, the TIA is very unusual. Most video game systems have memory that holds the current state of the display. Their video chip reads that memory and uses that information to generate the display. But not the TIA—memory was very expensive at the time, so the TIA was designed with a handful of registers that contain just the information needed to draw a single scanline. It's up to our program to change those registers in real-time so that each scanline shows what its supposed to. It's also up to our program to generate a "sync signal" that tells the TV when its time to start generating a new image.
Turn to page 2 of the programmer's guide. You'll find the following diagram, which I've slightly modified:
The Horizontal Blank is part of each scanline, so we don't need to worry about generating it. Everything else though is up to us! We need to generate a sync signal over 3 scanlines, after which we need to wait 37 scanlines before we tell TIA to "turn on" the image output. After that we need up update TIA so each of the 192 scanlines that comprise visible portion of the display show what they're supposed to. Once that's done, we "turn off" the image output and wait 30 scanlines before we start all over again.
In the source code, available below, you can see the Main Program Loop which follows the diagram:
Main: jsr VerticalSync ; Jump to SubRoutine VerticalSync jsr VerticalBlank ; Jump to SubRoutine VerticalBlank jsr Kernel ; Jump to SubRoutine Kernel jsr OverScan ; Jump to SubRoutine OverScan jmp Main ; JuMP to Main
Each of the subroutines handles what's needed, such as this section which generates the sync signal:
VerticalSync: lda #2 ; LoaD Accumulator with 2 so D1=1 sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) sta VSYNC ; Accumulator D1=1, turns on Vertical Sync signal sta WSYNC ; Wait for Sync - halts CPU until end of 1st scanline of VSYNC sta WSYNC ; wait until end of 2nd scanline of VSYNC lda #0 ; LoaD Accumulator with 0 so D1=0 sta WSYNC ; wait until end of 3rd scanline of VSYNC sta VSYNC ; Accumulator D1=0, turns off Vertical Sync signal rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
Currently there's no game logic, so the VerticalBlank just waits for the 37 scanlines to pass:
VerticalBlank: ldx #37 ; LoaD X with 37 vbLoop: sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) dex ; DEcrement X by 1 bne vbLoop ; Branch if Not Equal to 0 rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
The Kernel is the section of code that draws the screen:
Kernel: ; turn on the display sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) lda #0 ; LoaD Accumulator with 0 so D1=0 sta VBLANK ; Accumulator D1=1, turns off Vertical Blank signal (image output on) ; draw the screen ldx #192 ; Load X with 192 KernelLoop: sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) stx COLUBK ; STore X into TIA's background color register dex ; DEcrement X by 1 bne KernelLoop ; Branch if Not Equal to 0 rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
For this initial build it just changes the background color so we can see that we're generating a stable picture:
Like Vertical Blank, OverScan doesn't have anything to do besides turning off the image output, so it just waits for enough scanlines to pass so that the total scanline count is 262.
OverScan: sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) lda #2 ; LoaD Accumulator with 2 so D1=1 sta VBLANK ; STore Accumulator to VBLANK, D1=1 turns image output off ldx #27 ; LoaD X with 27 osLoop: sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) dex ; DEcrement X by 1 bne osLoop ; Branch if Not Equal to 0 rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
Anyway, download the source at the bottom of my blog entry and take a look—there are comments galore.
Other Assembly Language Tutorials
Step 1: Generate a Stable Display
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
Some people appear to have a mental illness because they have a vitamin B deficiency. For example, the wife of a guy I used to chat with online had severe mood swings which seemed to be caused by food allergies or intolerances. She would became irrational, obnoxious, throw tantrums, and generally act like she had a mental illness. The horrid behavior stopped after she started taking a vitamin B complex. I’ve been taking #ad Jarrow B-Right for many years. It makes me much easier to live with.
Unfermented soy is bad! “When she stopped eating soy, the mental problems went away.” Fermented soy doesn’t bother me, but the various versions of unfermented soy (soy flour, soybean oil, and so on) that are used in all kinds of products these days causes a negative mental health reaction in me that a vitamin B complex can’t tame. The sinister encroachment of soy has made the careful reading of ingredients a necessity.
If you are overweight, have type II diabetes, or are worried about the condition of your heart, check out the videos by William Davis and Ivor Cummins. It seems that most people should avoid wheat, not just those who have a wheat allergy or celiac disease. Check out these books: #ad Undoctored, #ad Wheat Belly, and #ad Eat Rich, Live Long.
Negative ions are good for us. You might want to avoid positive ion generators and ozone generators. Whenever I need a new air cleaner (with negative ion generator), I buy it from surroundair.com. A plain old air cleaner is better than nothing, but one that produces negative ions makes the air in a room fresher and easier for me to breathe. It also helps to brighten my mood.
Never litter. Toss it in the trash or take it home. Do not throw it on the ground. Also remember that good people clean up after themselves at home, out in public, at a campsite and so on. Leave it better than you found it.
Seems like more people than ever finally care about water, land, and air pollution, but the climate change cash grab scam is designed to put more of your money into the bank accounts of greedy politicians. Those power-hungry schemers try to trick us with bad data and lies about overpopulation while pretending to be caring do-gooders. Trying to eliminate pollution is a good thing, but the carbon footprint of the average law-abiding human right now is actually making the planet greener instead of killing it.
Watch these two YouTube videos for more information:
Hydrofracking is bad for you, your family, your friends, and the environment.
Although some people with certain conditions may not be able to take it, hydroxychloroquine is a cheap drug that has been prescribed by doctors since the 1950s and it seems to be helping many people who have COVID-19 when administered early enough. (Hydroxychloroquine is also supposedly safe and tolerable as an anti-cancer therapy.) Seems like most news sources are going out of their way to make it sound like hydroxychloroquine is the most dangerous drug in the world, but they also make it sound like it’s the greatest drug in the world for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis patients. They basically say that using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients would be taking that great and wonderful drug away from the other patients who need it. So which is it? Is hydroxychloroquine deadly or divine?
If you believe that a couple of Trump supporters took the medicine hydroxychloroquine and it’s President Trumps fault that the husband died, you’ve been duped. Watch this video. The wife was a prolific Democratic donor, it seems she hated her husband, she used fish tank cleaner (not the medicine hydroxychloroquine), and now she is the subject of a homicide investigation.
Some people claim that the reason so many news sources want to keep doctors from using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 is that they are desperate to keep everyone afraid to leave their homes since mail-in voting will make voter fraud much easier (the only way they could beat Trump). Others claim that the rabid anti-hydroxychloroquine campaign was to make way for the expensive new drug called remdesivir. Drug companies can’t make much money with old generic drugs, so new drugs must be pushed. Both claims could be true since remdesivir supposedly isn’t as good as hydroxychloroquine.
According to Dr. Shiva Ayyadurai, hydroxychloroquine does four things: (1) stops viral entry, (2) stops viral RNA replication, (3) stops viral particle assembly, and (4) stops cytokine storm. Remdesivir only stops viral RNA replication. Did you get that? Hydroxychloroquine does four things and remdesivir only does one. The doctor also said that nearly 70 percent of the people who took remdesivir had some type of adverse effect. If all of that is true and the more anemic medicine ends up being used by most doctors thanks to the smear campaign against hydroxychloroquine, the average American will beg to vote from home.
In case you didn’t know, Patrick Howley reported that one of the authors of the ‘study’ saying that hydroxychloroquine doesn’t work at VA hospitals got a research grant from Gilead (the company that makes remdesivir). Does that seem a little fishy to you?
Bryan Fischer said in an article that Dr. Fauci has known since 2005 that chloroquine is an effective inhibitor of coronaviruses. You might also want to check out the following three links:
“The Disruptive Physician” had this to say at Twitter: “Meanwhile, regular doctors like me are using HCQ + Azithromycin and Zinc to good effect. One nursing home in NE Ohio had 30 cases - started everyone on HCQ, no deaths. Quick recovery. Why would the MSM hide this? Why would twitter block people who question the WHO?” You might also want to check out Dr. Stephen Smith, Dr. Ramin Oskoui and Dr. Yvette Lozano.
In case you’re interested, here are a few COVID-19 patients who appear to claim that hydroxychloroquine saved their lives: elderly couple Louis Amen and Dolores Amen, Daniel Dae Kim, Rio Giardinieri, John McConnell, Margaret Novins, Jim Santilli, Billy Saracino, and Karen Whitsett (Democratic member of the Michigan House of Representatives).
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Use any example programs at your own risk. I am not responsible if they blow up your computer or melt your Atari 2600. Use assembly language at your own risk. I am not responsible if assembly language makes you cry or gives you brain damage.