By Darrell Spice, Jr. (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn)
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Original Blog Entry
For this update, we're going to double the Y range of the player objects. To use the new Y value for the 2LK we just need to divide it in half using the LSR command. The remainder of the divide, which ends up in the Carry flag, will conveniently tell us if we need to turn on Vertical Delay.
This routine preps the 2LK data for player0 and turns on VDELP0 if required (if you're wondering, VDELP0 is turned off in VerticalSync):
; prep Humanoid's Y position for 2LK ldx #1 ; preload X for setting VDELPx lda ObjectY ; get the human's Y position lsr ; divide by 2 for the 2LK position sta Temp ; save for position calculations bcs NoDelay0 ; if carry is set we don't need Vertical Delay stx VDELP0 ; carry was clear, so set Vertical Delay NoDelay0: ; HumanDraw = ARENA_HEIGHT + HUMAN_HEIGHT - Y position lda #(ARENA_HEIGHT + HUMAN_HEIGHT) sec sbc Temp sta HumanDraw ; HumanPtr = HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1 - Y position lda #<(HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1) sec sbc Temp sta HumanPtr lda #>(HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1) sbc #0 sta HumanPtr+1
One minor problem with the prior 2LK was that player1 could not show up on the topmost scanline of the Arena:
To fix this, we'll modify the kernel to prime GRP1 before it enters the loop that draws the Arena:
ldy #ARENA_HEIGHT+1 ; 2 7 - the arena will be 180 scanlines (from 0-89)*2 ; prime GRP1 so player1 can appear on topmost scanline of the Arena lda #BOX_HEIGHT-1 ; 2 9 - height of the box graphics, dcp BoxDraw ; 5 14 - Decrement BoxDraw and compare with height bcs DoDrawGrp1pre ; 2 16 - (3 17) if Carry is Set, then box is on current scanline lda #0 ; 2 18 - otherwise use 0 to turn off player1 .byte $2C ; 4 22 - $2C = BIT with absolute addressing, trick that ; causes the lda (BoxPtr),y to be skipped DoDrawGrp1pre: ; 17 - from bcs DoDrawGRP1pre lda (BoxPtr),y ; 5 22 - load the shape for the box sta GRP1 ; 3 25 - @0-22, update player1 to draw box dey ; 2 27 ArenaLoop: ; 13 - from bpl ArenaLoop
The 2LK calculations for player1 used to be the same as for player0, but now must be modified to compensate for the priming of GRP1:
; prep box's Y position for 2LK lda ObjectY+1 ; get the box's Y position clc adc #1 ; add 1 to compensate for priming of GRP1 lsr ; divide by 2 for the 2LK position sta Temp ; save for position calculations bcs NoDelay1 ; if carry is set we don't need Vertical Delay stx VDELP1 ; carry was clear, so set Vertical Delay NoDelay1: ; BoxDraw = ARENA_HEIGHT + BOX_HEIGHT - Y position + 1 ; the + 1 compensates for priming of GRP1 lda #(ARENA_HEIGHT + BOX_HEIGHT +1) sec sbc Temp sta BoxDraw ; BoxPtr = BoxGfx + BOX_HEIGHT - 1 - Y position lda #<(BoxGfx + BOX_HEIGHT - 1) sec sbc Temp sta BoxPtr lda #>(BoxGfx + BOX_HEIGHT - 1) sbc #0 sta BoxPtr+1
Added GRP1 priming which allows player1 to cover full Arena:
Lastly, I added a new Box graphic for player1:
The ROM and the source are at the bottom of my blog entry.
Goals for this tutorial.
On other systems, the video chip generates the display; on the 2600, your program generates the display.
Improve the display generation by using the built-in timer.
Using the playfield to display information.
Draw the player objects (sprites) on screen (X & Y location).
Step 5: Automate Vertical Delay
Finish the Y positioning of the player objects (sprites).
Revise our goals.
Display an arena (like the mazes in Combat).
Using the Game Select and Game Reset console switches.
How to implement game variations (number of players, different mazes).
How to randomize your game.
Draw the ball on screen (X & Y location).
Draw the missiles on screen (X & Y location)
Let’s make some noise!
Make the humans run instead of glide.
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
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